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It is now beyond doubt that sustainability and energy-efficiency are being given their due importance in India, and this importance is manifesting itself in green architecture all over the country. Joining this bandwagon is a new Recreation Centre and Solarium in Delhi, to be inaugurated later this year. With all the eco-friendly aspects that are to be incorporated into its design, this Recreation centre is likely to stand out among other similar buildings.
The structure is sprawled over five acres of land, incorporating a green design that also provides a habitat of luxury in the indoors as well as the outdoors. The building is also unique for the fact that the environment created is conducive to outdoor activity throughout the year. This design has been provided by Mumbai-based architecture firm Prem Nath & Associates.
The Solarium, spread over 1 million square feet will be a multi-use destination complete with a farm, pool, gymnasium, aquatic centre and a library, all under a canopy made of enormous solar panels, a grey-water system, and passive cooling/heating design.
Glass with Aluminum
The entire structure is formed from glass and aluminum sections. Double-glazed low-e glass is held in place with high-strength horizontal fiber glass tendons and aluminum structural members. The clean construction gives way to an equally streamlined interior that is rendered clutter-free. The temperature inside the structure is regulated to meet the requirements of occupant comfort as well as to optimize conditions for the growth of plants.
The aluminum frame was designed to make the structure homogenous, lightweight and structurally stable. Photovoltaic solar panels on the roof work with the low-e glass to control temperature and reduce energy consumption, and rotating louvers on the roof help flood the indoors with ample fresh air. Meanwhile, motion sensors and LUX intensity meter sensors control lighting for efficient energy consumption.
The high gloss aluminum finish, the envelope of green landscape, the manicured lawns and the local tree plantations keep privacy intact. Trees have been illuminated with floor and trunk mounted lighters, concealed cleverly for glare-free lighting, and there are various theme indoor gardens with fruit tree plantations, sculptures, and pathways curbed with flowering plants. Some rare and exotic species of plants have been planted inside the structure as well as in the garden. Irrigation requirements within the complex will be partially fulfilled with recycled water.
South India is now home to an iconic “zero energy and solar powered home”, a masterpiece in Green architecture that is set to start a welcome trend in controlled energy consumption in residences.
This zero energy space project was exhibited at the Indian Green Building Congress (IGBC) 2010, held at Chennai from 6th to 9th October last year. The IGBC is Asia’s largest Green building conference. The project was also showcased at the Economic Times’ ACEtech – Mumbai as well as Delhi chapters. These are Asia’s largest construction related expos.
About 60% of this home’s energy requirements are met by the conventional sources, while solar power supplies the remaining 40%. Nevertheless, there is no compromise on performance and comfort.
The chief sponsors of this Green initiative are Aluplast Windows, Breezair, Everest Industries, Nippon Paints, Supreme Pertochem and Roca.
EVEREST FIBRE CEMENT BOARDS
The drywall construction with fibre cement boards from Everest creates a strong, light weight, water resistant and energy efficient building envelope which supports a variety of finishes. 55% of the raw materials used to prepare these boards are recycled.
BREEZAIR FRESH AIR
Air conditioning is known to be the largest consumer of energy in a building. The Breezair system works through an evaporative cooling cycle and consumes 1/10th of the energy of a conventional air conditioning device, apart from providing 100% fresh air ventilation.
PHOTO-VOLTAIC BY TEAM SUSTAIN
SUPREME INSUBOARD & BEARDSELL
Insulation of the walls and the roof is a vital element of the building envelope, meant to prevent the transfer of heat in both directions. This product reduces heat ingress through the walls/roof and hence cuts down on energy consumption for air conditioning. INSBOARD offers one the highest insulation values for XPS insulation.
High performance double glazed units and energy-saving UPVC frames are used to reduce energy consumption as well as sound transmission. This is a German product, which saves energy by reducing infiltration and the frames are provided with thermal breaks to prevent heat ingress.
Water efficient fixtures for toilets and taps reduce the fresh water consumption in the building and also help score points for the LEED rating system.
Bamboo improves the sustainability of the building as it grows rapidly and can be harvested in much shorter period compared to hardwoods. With the help of the modern production techniques bamboo is transformed into an excellent materials for flooring, furniture and other interior design works.
Low-Voc Paints are used on the interiors to create healthy indoor environment and keep away toxins which could be lead to respiratory problems. Solar Reflective paints are used on the exteriors, which facilitate reflection of sunlight and reduction in solar heat gain.
It is almost passé for architecture of all forms and for every purpose to take the Green route today. Be it educational institutions, corporate buildings, government offices or commercial buildings, public areas like airports, railways stations and sports stadiums, residential constructions or even hospitals – Sustainability and Green are buzzwords that none can ignore. But the winner is the “Golden Temple” of Sripuram in Tamil Nadu. As a place of worship, it stands out as the latest form of architecture, most unusually, that has embraced the Green concept.
This Golden Temple of Sripuram is a spiritual park situated at the foothills of Malaikodi, a village within the city of Vellore in Tamil Nadu, India. Sripuram received “Exnora Green Temple Award” and “Exnora Best Eco-friendly Campus of India Award” from Deputy Chief Minister of Tmail Nadu, Shri M.K. Stalin on 27th October earlier this year.
Exnora International is a non-government environmental service organization. The body has rated the temple as one of the best enviro-models of the world.
The temple is a paradise of sorts, where tranquillity, greenery and peace reign supreme. An attractive-looking terracotta-tiled ceiling over the 1.5 km long star-shaped foot path leading to the temple provides for the entry of ample natural light and wind.
The eco-friendly features include Solid Waste Management (SWM), Liquid Waste Management (LWM), rainwater harvesting, bio-gas generation, organic farming, herbal gardens, paddy fields and tree plantations, hill and campus afforestation and harnessing of solar energy. Manure and water for cultivation are generated internally.
Plastics and glasses are shredded, papers compressed into bales and sent for recycling by the Solid Waste Management system. Sripuram Temple attracts a daily footfall of over 5,000 which translate into two tonnes of waste, both bio-degradable and recyclable. The waste is either turned back into material or into manure which is used for the site’s soil. The waste water is recycled and used to irrigate the grass and plantations. Vegetables for meals are grown internally.
About 3 tonnes of cow dung aids in the generation of 50 kgs of fuel which in turn is used for cooking. Also, the bio-gas generated from a mixture of cow dung and waste food is used at temple’s accommodations, hospital and community kitchens.
Solar Water Heaters
Solar heaters generate hot water which is also used in the kitchens, thereby reducing the need for procurement of fuel from external sources by 80 percent. Canals and ponds dug up within the site help recharge ground water. The temple generates water for its own needs and also supplies some for public use when rainfall is insufficient.
Zero Waste Management (ZWM)
The temple also practices Zero Waste Management. This system includes a biogas plant. Between April 2002 and November 2003, the system has generated 33.8 tonnes of compost (worth Rs. 52,280) and earned Rs. 22,400 through sale of recyclables. The compost generated is used in various areas within the temple site like the gardens, agricultural fields, nurseries and for hill restoration. The success of the project has encouraged the management to extend the ZWM to the Malaikodi village.
Waste Processing Facility (WPF)
The temple authorities have set up a Waste Processing Facility (WPF). Four to five mega tonnes of garbage generated daily is processed by 70 workers. The bio – degradable waste is converted into organic manure through aerobic composting and vermicomposting. The recyclables are segregated into 48 categories, packed and sold to recyclers. The average income from sale of compost and recyclables is Rs.1 lakh per month. An average of 2 tonnes of garbage is collected everyday from surrounding areas.
During the treatment process, natural manure is created and used at the Sakthi Amma Greenery Afforestation Revolution (SAGAR) and the Sakthi Amma Afforestation Program (SAAP). Cleaning powders are made from fruit and vegetable peels.
Drastically, many buildings with the great alertness of sustainability, energy efficiency and green building necesscity and also with a consciousness to minimize the global warming started to recognize themselves with a great list of eco-friendly features. In such a manner, PepsiCo’s Chicago downtown corporate plaza also implemented various energy efficient initiatives and upgrades for the conservation energy to a maximum extent. As a result of those implementations, it earned an Energy Star certification – a national mark of excellence in energy performance. Energy Star is an international standard for energy efficient consumer’s products and projects, created by United States Environmental Protection Agency.
PepsiCo’s Chicago Plaza was built in the year 2002. This 17-story sparkling plaza already earned a LEED certification for Existing Building Silver Certification from USGBC. This company was also awarded with the 2009 Energy Star Sustained Excellence Award by the U.S. EPA. PepsiCo Chicago Plaza had taken various of steps to minimize their energy consumption. This plaza successfully achieved its goals with the help of its employee “Green Team.”
Especially, all conference rooms and the offices of this plaza are installed with motion sensors, which automatically turn the lights off when there are no foot prints or when they are not occupied. Old components of the HVAC systems are replaced with the energy efficient equipments. The roof top of the sustainability center is installed with solar and wind power generating equipments. These save the electrical energy to a greater extent. Also, the Green Team keeps its employees to be aware of the daily energy usage through the employee-nominated floor leaders.
Contests are being conducted for every month between all the floors of the plaza regarding the waste reduction and finally the names of the winners and losers are announced internally. A very beneficial recycling program was also started that aims to recycle all the recyclable glass, paper, plastic, cardboard, batteries, printer/fax cartridges, light bulbs and so on taken from the refuse bins of the plaza. This effort lands in recycling and reusing Chicago Plaza’s 70 percent solid waste instead of being dispatched into the municipal landfills.
Even all the janitorial products are also replaced with the alternate products, which meets the USGBC’s sustainable green building products and materials standard. This plaza satisfies all the categories of the energy efficiency such as sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, material and resource and indoor environmental quality.
American Institute of Architect (AIA) – a professional organization for architects in United States unveiled a list of Top 10 environmental friendly green projects for 2009. After analyzing various energy efficient features of the numerous buildings, AIA generated this top 10 list for green buildings. Those remarkable green buildings are listed below:
Charles Hostler Student Center
Charles Hostler student Center located on the campus of the American University of Beirut is a startling example for how a perfect campus should be. This building covers an area of about 204,000 square feet. Here the project is organized as a cluster of interior and exterior spaces rather than a single building. This allows the building forms themselves to redistribute the air, activity and shade. The east-west orientation of the building forms helps to provide shade to the exterior courtyards, which reduces the amount of the southern exposure. That orientation also directs the nighttime breezes and the daytime sea breezes for cooling the outdoor spaces.
The rooftop of this study center includes a green space, which allows a very pleasurable physical and visual integration to the upper campus. This green rooftop reduces the amount of exposures to the sun. Shading and ventilation process increases the amount of usable program areas of outdoor spaces.
An outstanding and stunning Chartwell school campus occupies an area of about 21,200 square-feet. Excellent daylight inside is provided by the tall and north-facing glass windows and clerestories. This helps in achieving the net-zero electrical goal of that school. Sloping shed roofs helps in good photovoltaic orientation of the building. Radiant heat plays a very beneficial role in providing a quite and pleasant environment to the students of the school and also reduces the size of the mechanical equipments and mechanical rooms. Framing the structure at the two feet on the centre reduces the amount of materials used on the project and thus saves the overall construction cost.
Gish apartment is a 35-unit transit-oriented family apartment in downtown San Jose, California. This ground breaking apartment covers an area of about 75,200 square-feet. This is the first US housing apartment to receive the LEED for homes and LEED for new construction Gold certification. By choosing a site adjacent to light rail and reserving 35 percent of units for tenants with developmental disabilities, the owner earned a major parking reduction from the city. As a result, the project has a high housing density of 81 units per acre. Other energy efficient features of this apartment includes the reuse of urban brownfield site, a roof-top photovoltaic array, high performance insulation in 2×6 exterior walls, double-glazed windows, and high-efficiency heating and hot water system
Great River Energy Headquarters
Great River Energy (GRE) is Minnesota’s second largest electric wholesale supplier, generating and transmitting the electricity to 28 distribution cooperatives serving more than 620,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers. The headquarters of the GRE covers 166,000 square-feet area. It is a four-story building with concrete frames and architectural glass curtain walls. GRE wished to design its headquarters as a model of electric efficient building, which could be adopted by the electric co-op members across the state. The major goal of these members was to reduce the demand for large and coal fired generating plants. They also wanted to meet the new demands with the wind power or with other renewable resources.
This building achieved most of the features of a green building by providing abundant day light, view to the exterior, exceptional indoor air quality and a quality work environment within a reasonable budget.
Jewish Reconstructionist congregation
Eye-catching Jewish Reconstructionist congregation (JRC) in Evanston, Illinois covers 31,600 square feet. This new synagogue for Jewish Reconstructionist congregation building earned the LEED Platinum certification. Perimeter space of this building has 9.5 ft ceilings. This enhances the day lighting and natural ventilation. The synagogue is a wooden box clad with reclaimed cypress, with spectrally selective, low emissive glazing. The reclaimed cypress is also used in the indoor of the worship spaces. At the perimeter sites of the building Gabion walls filled with waste masonry are used. Most of the floors are made up of polished concrete. Thus there is no necessity for the floor covering. Paints and finishes with low level of volatile organic compounds are used throughout the building.
Portola Valley Town Center
Portola valley town center was constructed at Portola valley in California by demolishing three town structures – a library, a community hall and a town hall. The materials of the old town center were reused as beams, paneling, countertops and structural fills. The new building is 20 percent smaller than the old. The salvaged wood is used for the exterior siding and louvers and the local eucalyptus is used for the wood flooring. The concrete mixture is 70 percent slag. Because of such energy efficient measures, the carbon emission is reduced by 32 percent.
Energy efficiency is achieved greatly by proper building orientation, day lighting, natural ventilation, sunshades and thermal mass. Small and efficient air conditioning units pre-cool make-up air and eliminating the need of full air conditioning. This building includes a photovoltaic system with 76KW, which supplies 40 percent electricity to the building. The non renewable energy cost is reduced by 51 percent and the carbon consumption is reduced by 76.2 tons per year. Strikingly, an abandoned culvert will become a cistern for storing 40,000 gallons of rain water.
Shangri La Botanical Garden & Nature Center
Shangri La Botanical Garden & Nature Center in the heart of Orange, Texas is a project which involves in the restoration of the land, which had been closed to the public for 50 years. This building finished one edge of its complex with the cues taken from the brick, glass and steel from the green houses built in the early 1920s. The nature discovery lab and pavilion, outdoor classrooms, bird blind and boat house are designed to float above the land on helical pier foundations and for very minimal impact. Photovoltaic panels are used for the power generation for these structures. Proudly this green building earned the LEED platinum certification.
Synergy at Dockside Green
Dockside green covers wide area of about 1.3 million ft2 in the heart of Victoria, BC. This resourceful building includes many environmental friendly features like rolling canopies that are used to control glare and solar radiations. Occupants have a control over their spaces with the help of dashboards, which also controls the canopies as well as heating and ventilation. There are also green roofs which includes planting spaces for vegetables and a green way to support the social equity and local food production. These green roofs and spaces help in minimizing the heat island effect. It also takes away the great burden of the city storm water system by allowing the storm water to leak into it.
Meanwhile all the waters landed by the rain gets collected and reused for the purpose of irrigation, toilet flushing and for the greenway treatments. A wood-fire combined heat and power plant will produce the heat and hot water to the entire usage. This greatly combined along with the hydropower-based electricity, will reduce the carbon emission to a greater extent. Highly renewable resources such as bamboos and cork were used as the interior finishes and the materials with the low level volatile organic compounds were also used in the construction.
The Terry Thomas
The Terry Thomas, a gorgeous green building in Seattle, WA cover 37,000 ft2 office space in four floors. The highlight of this building is its less dependency on the energy. A holistic design concept was tailored with specific sites to provide day light, ventilation and reinforced community connection to the tenants of the building. This indirectly resulted in increase in the productivity potential. By this process, they also created an experimental and educational tool for promoting sustainable design.
World Headquarters for the International Fund for animal Welfare
The International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) is located in Cape Cod in yarmouthport, Massachusetts. This new headquarters received the LEED Gold certification. This project aims to create a restored meadow and to re-establish a natural habitat with native vegetation. IFAW also incorporated low-tech, low-cost and sustainable features such as orientation, natural day lighting, ventilation and very efficient mechanical system. This green house also incorporates a plan that reduces the square footage by 50 percent per person during the elaboration of the workspace and increasing the employees.
Rating the buildings according to the green building features leads to the increase in the awareness about the energy efficient green buildings in the world as well as it gains reputation to the buildings.
Skyscrapers are the buildings built with a super tall height. These skyscrapers are standing proudly with multi-storey. There is no official definition to describe the height of the skyscrapers. The concept of the skyscrapers evolved only in the 19th century. These skyscrapers grabbed the attention of the peoples all over the world. Many architects turned their attention towards these skyscrapers. As a result of this, many skyscrapers starts residing in the world. Most of the skyscrapers are also playing the role of green and eco-friendly buildings. A symposium about the gorgeous skyscrapers called Mixed Green was also held in 2006. Let us go through few of the top most skyscrapers in the world.
Burj Dubai, a popping skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates is the present tallest man-made building, which is under construction. The construction of this building began on 21st September 2004 and the construction is expected to be completed by the end of the year 2009. The height of the building is 818m, which is equal to 2,684 ft. The total budget of the Burj Dubai is about US $4.1 billion. This tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core and it contains 26 terraces.
As the tower is residing in a flat desert base, setbacks occur at each element in an upward spiraling pattern to decrease the cross section of the tower as it reaches towards the sky.This dazzling building contains totally 162 floors. Notably the exterior cladding of this massive tower is of reflective glazing. The cladding is designed in such a manner that it can withstand even Dubai’s extreme summer temperatures. The 56 elevators with double-deck elevators will be installed. The speed of the elevators would be 700m/min.
Taipei 101 is stunning skyscraper located in Xinyi district, Taipei, Taiwan. This skyscraper received the Emporis Skyscraper Award in 2004. This building contains 101 buildings above the ground and 5 floors as underground floors. It is designed to withstand typhoons and earthquakes. This skyscraper is flexible against the strong winds. Its flexibility prevents the structural damages of that building. Its resistive capacity gives the occupants a comfortable environment to work and protection to the glass and to the curtain walls. The transparent and non-reflective curtain walls are made up of double glazed blue-green (solar control) glass, which offers required heat and UV protection, and it is sustainable to impacts of 7 metric tons.
The few highlights of this building are its expansive area of energy efficient double glazing and column-free corner views. The elevator in this building runs with the speed of 1010m per minute sweeps the peoples from 5th to 89th floor within 37 seconds. The indoor observatory provides a very pleasing environment, large glass windows with UV protection, recorded voice tours in eight languages and informative display and special exhibits. This roof of this stunning skyscraper is powered by the solar, makes it to take part as one of the green buildings.
Shanghai World Financial center
Shanghai World Financial center in Pudong, china stands with a height of 492m and it contains 101 floors. This financial center occupies a ground area of about 377,300 square-meters. This energy saving building includes 30 elevators and 33 escalators. The circular aperture in the top reduces the stress of the wind pressure. This center encloses energy efficient LED displays on the external walls of the building. Water recycling tanks are used to recycle the waters used all over the building. This building provides more space for the bicycle parking to encourage the peoples to reduce driving the vehicles, emitting more carbon. UV resistant windows are used to save energy. It was awarded with the LEED gold pre-certification by the USGBC.
International Commerce Center
International Commerce Center will be the tallest building in the Hong Kong. This building earned the platinum rating under the Hong Kong Building Environmental Assessment Methods (HK-BEAM). The height of the building is 483m and the total number of floors present in the building is 118. At this commercial center, Credit Suisse will become the first office world wide to introduce the “thin client” computer terminals for its employees replacing the individual Personal computers. This elimination of PCs led to the cost and energy savings, resulting 20 percent power consumption.
Petronas twin towers
Petronas twin towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were the world tallest building from 1998 to 2004. As the bedrock was in a great depth, this twin towers were built on the world’s deepest foundation. Petronas tower 1 and Petronas tower 2 are collectively known as Petronas twin tower. Each of the two towers holds 88 floors and the façade includes steel and glass. The underscore of this building is the skybridge between the floors of 41 and 42, which is the second world largest skybridge. The skybridge would be very useful during the time of emergency. All the lifts in this building are double-decker lifts.
Green Buildings Open House is the largest event dedicated to sustainable energy in the northeastern USA. It is organized by the Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (NESEA). Green Building Open House is annually held on the first Saturday of October.
The Primary goal of this event is to showcase energy efficiency and renewable energy features in buildings within NESEA’s 10-state territory. This event will connect consumers with the industrial professional, who will be educating about the various green building products and services available to retrofit current buildings and construct new buildings that features energy efficiency and on-site power generation.
This event is organized by NESEA in conjunction with the American Solar Energy Society’s National Solar Tour, which allows the public to learn how to incorporate the energy efficient and sustainable elements in the buildings and help them to reduce cost incurred by the heating systems. This event exemplifies that life style, comfort, and attractive architecture are not sacrificed by utilizing energy efficient features.
The Green Buildings Open House is inviting public to visit sustainable, energy efficient homes and other advanced buildings throughout New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware and New England. Last year, thousands of people visited more than 600 sustainable buildings which include homes, schools, churches, public buildings and other nature centre from Pennsylvania to Maine to learn how to reduce carbon footprints and to use sustainable materials to save energy and money.
Once again the NESEA is inviting new site to join the extensive list of green buildings of those welcoming the public on October 3 from 10:00 am – 4:00 pm. David Barclay, Executive Director of NESEA said “We are thrilled about the number of host sites returning to participate in the Green Buildings Open House tour, a sure sign that they enjoyed being part of the tour last year and educating the public about their sustainable buildings. I would like to extend an invitation for new hosts who share pride in owning a sustainable and energy-efficient building to join the tour and help the public learn how they, too, can reduce energy consumption”.
To qualify as host site it can have the features like use of photovoltaic panels, geothermal heat pump, and wind turbines for energy production. Building should use energy efficient glass products, appliances, passive solar heating or solar hot water collection and storage. Building constructed with green material and recycled glass; wood materials are also qualified to participate.
To register your site for Green Buildings Open House, please visit the NESEA website at http://www.nesea.org/greenbuildings. Registration ends on September 1, 2009.
Architecture can be defined as the act of creating design of building with esthetic effect by considering various environmental facts. Architect is person who creates the new design for the building. Almost everyone hire an architect to bring out their dream ideas into a structural form that is spoken beyond ones imagination.
It is fact that many believe the architecture is high end work of art implemented in the building and it is pursued only by “Rich People”. People don’t know that even less expensive good design will speak for itself. An architect can bring out the needs of his client into his design within the budget.
The term architect derives from “ architectus” a Latin word which was in turn derived from Greek word “ arkhitekton” which means chief builder. Vitruvius is the man in history who insisted three main qualities of architecture – Durability, usefulness and beauty. Humans inspired and imitated on how animals and birds build their nests and that was how the house and many building came out. As man became more and more knowledgeable he created master pieces. He started using Steel, glass and other new material to build his shelter which protected better from nature’s elements.
Leonardo da Vinci insisted that building should be build based on the proportion of the human body. Every part of the nature has a ratio with which it is build; it is called as Golden ratio ie equal to 1.618. His famous painting “Mono Lisa” has this golden ration implemented by him.
Mathematically defining, two quantities are in the golden ratio if the ratio between the sum of those quantities and the larger one is the same as the ratio between the larger one and the smaller. It is denoted by Greek symbol Phi.
This could be found in many plants, take a look at a sunflower you will find that its opposing spirals come in one of the following ratios: 55:34, 89:55, or 144:89 which equal to 1.618. Every human has two hands, each one of these has five fingers, and each finger has three parts which are separated by two knuckles. All of these numbers fit into the Fibonacci sequence that follows the golden ratio. Ancient buildings by Egyptian, Greeks, and Romans also had this golden ratio; Parthenon and Pyramid are well known examples. Another interesting fact is that even you credit card has this golden ratio rectangle.
The architects are now implementing many new features that conserve energy and other resources. Architect across the globe are now very consciously creating their design to implement Green buildings. It is also advisable that they should also understand golden ratio better and try to implement in their design which will bring harmony to occupants.